assembled.' Peter Rose and David Williams, 'Blackout Bombers sent down for 210
"years" ', Daily Mail, 3 July 1997.
2Brendan Behan, Borstal Boy (London: Hutchinson 1958) p.11.
3Does not include non-bombing incidents. Does include explosives that failed to
go off. Statistics taken from 'List of places in connection with vulnerable
undertakings etc. where outrages have occurred' (1939), Home Office (HO)
144/21357, The National Archives of the UK, Kew (hereinafter TNA).
43 of 450, Richard English, Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA (London: Pan
Macmillan 2004) pp.60-2.
5O'Halpin understandably gives ample treatment to German influence on the IRA in
this time. Eunan O'Halpin, Spying on Ireland: British Intelligence and Irish
Neutrality during the Second World War (Oxford: University Press 2008) pp.40-1.
6Paul McMahon, British Spies and Irish rebels: British Intelligence and Ireland
1916-45 (Woodbridge: Boydell 2008) pp.262-75.
7The incident included bombs down electrical manholes at Hilton Street,
Whitworth Street and Mosley Street, HO 144/21357, TNA.
8Brendan Behan, Borstal Boy, p.13.
9The Irish Free State was established in 1922 under the terms of the Anglo-Irish
treaty, until 1937 when De Valera's constitution renamed the state Eacuteire.
While the legal and constitutional status changed again in 1948 to the Republic
of Ireland, the IRA, having consistently rejected the authority of the Irish
state since 1921, continued to use the term 'Free State' derisorily.
10Sean Cronin, The McGarrity Papers (Tralee: Anvil 1972).
11Uinseann MacEoin, The IRA in the Twilight Years 1923-48 (Dublin: Argenta,
12Tim Pat Coogan, The IRA (London: Pall Mall, 1970) p.123.
13'Demolition of bridges without explosives - instructions', James L. O'Donovan,
Papers related to the IRA, 1930s and 40s, MS 21,155, Folder 5, National Library
of Ireland, Manuscripts Department.
14'IRA Aims', Folder 4, Ibid.
16London Metropolitan Police captured 'S-Plan', p.8, HO 144/21357, TNA.
17'This form of attack [against the rail network] is most desirable since it can
inflict no personal injury'; Ibid. 11.
18'Two Killed in Irish Explosion', The Times, 30 November 1938.
19Memo for Sir Norman Kendall (Chief Constable) from New Scotland Yard Special
Branch, 13 April 1939, HO 144/21357, TNA.
20Figures based on 1936, not counting IRA non-residents sent over for specific
operations. Sean Cronin, The McGarrity Papers, p.166.
21Kell to Alexander Maxwell (HO), 9 March 1939, HO 144/21357, TNA.
22Peter Barnes and James McCormack (aka James Richards) in memoriam pamphlets
contained in HO 45/25550, TNA.
23'Ultimate Cause', Time Magazine, 19 February 1940,
<http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,763505,00.html> (accessed 11
24Notably the IRA used women for the operations against cinemas. Tim Pat Coogan,
The IRA, p.127.
25One senior police officer commented, 'the two drunken Irish wasters … ought to
be sent back to Ireland.' Minute Sheet, MEMO 3/1303, TNA.
26Richard English, Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA (London: Pan Macmillan
27Stephan Enno, Spies in Ireland (London: McDonald 1963) p.38.
28An act that would eventually evolve into the Prevention of Terrorism Act 1974,
and more recently the Terrorism Act 2006.
29Enhanced protective security measures for Chequers and Downing Street during
the IRA's 1939 campaign are described in MEPO 3/1908 and MEPO 3/1910, TNA.
30Metropolitan Police Commissioner, note of meeting with House of Commons
Speaker (E.A. Fitzroy), 4 February 1939, MEPO 3/1909, TNA.
31John Archer Jackson, The Irish in Britain (London: Routledge 1963) p.157.
32'Hiberian Oath', enclosure to letter, Lord Ampthill to Samuel Hoare, 13 May
1939, HO 144/21357, TNA.
33Ibid. A Home Office reader of a very similar text that appeared in 1928, noted
at this point in pencil, 'He ran away, I thought!'
35Samuel Hoare to Lord Ampthill, 16 May 1939, HO 144/21357, TNA.
36Gary McGladdery, The Provisional IRA in England (Dublin: Irish Academic Press
37Tim Pat Coogan, The IRA, p.123.
38Richard English, Armed Struggle, p.61.
39Ed Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA (London: Allan Lane 2002) p.100.
40Gunner Curtis, killed by a single bullet from a Thompson gun, 6 February 1971.
Thomas Hennessey, The Evolution of the Troubles 1970-72 (Dublin: Irish Academic
Press 2007) p.66.
41There is no mention of the IRA's bomb attacks on Northern Ireland's
electricity network in the following works, Richard English, Armed Struggle; J.
Bowyer Bell, IRA Tactics and Targets (Dublin: Poolbeg 1997); Martin Dillon, 25
Years of Terror: the IRA's War Against the British (London: Bantam 1996); Tim
Pat Coogan, The IRA (revised edition, Glasgow: Fontana 1987); and J Bowyer Bell,
The Irish Troubles: A Generation of Violence (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan 1993).
42Ed Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA, p.100, and M.L.R. Smith, Fighting for
Ireland: The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement (London:
Routledge 1995) p.96.
43Richard English, Armed Struggle, p.137.
44Patrick Bishop and Eamonn Mallie, The Provisional IRA (London: Heinemann 1987)
45Hennessey, The Evolution of the Troubles 1970-72, p.210.
46Ed Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA, p.100.
47Anthony Craig, Intergovernmental Relations between Britain, Ireland and
Northern Ireland 1966-1974 (unpublished PhD Thesis, Cambridge 2008) pp.162, 184.
48Memo on Electricity situation marked SECRET, 23 August 1971, Com 58/3/1,
Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (hereinafter PRONI).
49A. C. Brooke (Perm Sec) Min Commerce NI Memo to Cabinet, 1 September 1971, CAB
50A.C. Brooke (Perm Sec) Min Commerce NI Memo to Cabinet, 1 September 1971, CAB
51Author interview, Sir Kenneth Bloomfield, former Assistant Secretary to the NI
Cabinet, 26 February 2008.
52M.L.R Smith, Fighting for Ireland, p.98.
53Memo on Public Utility Contingencies, Electricity Sabotage, (c.) January 1972,
Com 58/3/1, PRONI.
54Memo J.A.G. Whitlaw, 'Electricity Emergency Planning: Experience of March 27
and 28' 1972, Ibid.
55Memo on Electricity situation marked SECRET, 23 August 1971. Com 58/3/1,
56Gerry Kelly had a very junior position as a 17 year old in the Belfast
Corporation Electricity Department. Although in August 1971 Kelly was arrested
in the Republic for possession of 'Fianna weapons',
<http://www.anphoblacht.com/news/detail/22590>. Interview with Gerry Kelly in An
Phoblacht, 20 December 2007.
57'Mr Faulkner fails to gain full party support at meeting', The Times, 9
58Cabinet Minutes 24 November 1970, 'The St John's Point site should be acquired
as soon as the need for nuclear plant can be determined; it is expected that
this can be done in 1971.' CAB 9F/227/3, PRONI.
59NI Government Information Service, press release, 'New power station
announced. Kilroot, Co Antrim, Oil Fired, 12,000MW to be commissioned 1978', 6
September 1971. Ibid.
60Docklands bomb ends IRA ceasefire, BBC News, 10 February 1996,
9265.stm> (accessed 11 November 2008).
61'Ring of Steel clangs back in to position', The Times, 11 February 1996; 'Ring
of steel will be built to protect the Isle of Dogs', The Times, 11 March 1996.
62Stella Rimmington, Open Secret: The Autobiography of the Former Director
General of MI5 (London: Hutchinson 2001) p.218.
63'Terrorists jailed for Marita Ann Arms Cache', The Times, 12 December 1984.
64'IRA blitz on gas and water plants foiled', The Times, 16 July 1997.
65'IRA man tells court how unit set up London base', The Times, 4 June 1997.
66Peter Rose and David Williams, 'Blackout Bombers sent down for 210 years'.
67Tony Geraghty, The Irish War: The Hidden Conflict between the IRA and British
Intelligence (London: Harper Collins 1998) p.240.
68Ibid. Canterbury-North, West Weybridge, Amersham Main, Waltham Cross, Elstree
69MORI Poll Archive, all published opinion polls, 1996,
=2450&view=wide=1996> (accessed 16 June 2010).
71Ibid. (Although all of the group were released by 2000 under the Good Friday
Agreement.) Tony Geraghty, The Irish War, p.240.
72For Richard English, citing a statement in An Phoblacht, 27 March 1997, 'The
IRA were prepared to face their responsibilities "in facilitating a process
aimed at securing a lasting resolution" to the conflict', Richard English, Armed
73Anthony Craig, Intergovernmental Relations between Britain, Ireland and
Northern Ireland 1966-1974, pp.207-9.